Constitutional Principles from the Making of America
From "The Making of America" by W. Cleon Skousen
Skousen, Cleon. The Making of America The substance and meaning of the Constitution. National Center for Constitutional Studies. USA. 2007. P233-764.
“THE PREAMBLE TO THE CONSTITUTION”
"We the people of the United States,
In order to form
A more perfect union,
Insure domestic tranquility,
Provide for the common defense,
Promote the general welfare,
And secure the blessings of liberty
to ourselves and our posterity,
Do ordain and establish
For the United States of America".
1. This Constitution is ordained and established by “We the people”
2. The first goal of sound government is to provide a more perfect union.
3. This Constitution is to provide equal justice for all.
4. This constitution is designed to ensure peace, security, and domestic, tranquility among the people.
5. This Constitution shall provide for a common defense against all enemies, both internally and externally.
6. This Constitution is designed to promote those practices and policies which shall be for the general welfare of the whole nation.
7. The Founders said the purpose of the Constitution would be to secure the blessings of Liberty for themselves and their posterity.
ARTICLE 1– THE LEGISLATIVE BRANCH
POWER PLANT FOR THE CONSTITUTION
8. All Legislative or lawmaking powers granted by this Constitution shall be bested exclusively in the Congress of the United States.
9. The Congress shall consist of two separate legislative bodies—one to be called a Senate and the other to be called a House of Representatives.
THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
10. The members of the House of Representatives shall be elected by qualified voters in each of the states.
11. Any citizen of a state who is qualified to vote for a representative in the state legislature shall be considered qualified to vote for a Representative in the United States Congress.
12. Elections for the members of the House of Representatives shall take place every two years.
13. In order to be a member of the House of Representatives, a person must have reached twenty-five years of age by the time he is sworn into office
14. A member of the House of Representatives must have been a citizen of the United Stated for at least seven years.
15. A person cannot be elected to the House of Representatives unless he is an inhabitant of that state which he will be representing.
16. The number of Representatives from each state will be apportioned according to population.
17. Direct taxes (levied against the property of private individuals) shall be apportioned among the states according to population.
18. A consensus of the population of each state shall be taken within three years after this Constitution is adopted, and every ten years thereafter.
19. To avoid having too many members in the House of Representatives, each Congressman must represent at least 30,000 people.
20. Each state shall be entitled to have at least one Representative even if it is disproportionate to the rest of the states.
21. As a temporary expedient until the first census is taken, each state is entitled to a specified number of Representatives.
22. If the seat of a Representative becomes vacant because of death, resignation, or some other cause, the governor of that state shall call for a new election to fill the vacancy.
23. The House of Representatives shall choose its own Speaker to preside over its proceedings.
24. The House of Representatives shall choose its own clerks, sergeant at arms, and all other officers needed to function efficiently.
25. The House of Representatives shall have the exclusive authority to bring impeachment charges against any federal judges or officials in the executive branch of government.
26. The Senate of the United Sates shall be composed of two Senators from each state.
27. Senators shall be appointed by their respective state legislatures to protect the rights of the states as sovereign entities.
28. The term of office for a Senator shall be for six years.
29. There should not be any limitation on the length of service by either Senators or members of the House of Representatives.
30. Each senator shall have one vote.
31. When the first senate convenes, it shall be divided into three classes. The first class shall be terminated at the expiration of two years, the second class shall be terminated at the expiration of four years, and the third class shall be terminated at the expiration of six years. This means that once this order has been established, each Senator will serve for six years, but one-third of the Senate will come up for election every two years.
32. When a vacancy occurs in the Senate because of death, resignation, or some other cause, the legislature of that state shall appoint another in his stead, and if the legislature is not in session the governor of that state may make a temporary appointment until the legislature convenes.
33. In order to qualify as a Senator, a person must have reached the age of 30 years by the time that person is sworn into office.
34. A Senator must have been a citizen of the United Stated for at least nine years.
35. A Senator must be an inhabitant of the state which he is appointed to represent.
36. The Vice President shall serve as the presiding officer over the Senate.
37. The Vie President shall not be allowed to vote unless there is a tie and his vote is necessary to make a decision.
38. The Senate shall choose its own clerks, sergeant at arms, and all other officers needed to function effectively.
39. In case the Vice President is not available to preside over the Senate, the Senate will choose one of its town member to serve as president pro tempore.
40. The Senate shall have the exclusive power to hear impeachment proceedings which the House of Representative has brought against any judge or executive official of the government.
41. When the Senate is sitting in its judicial capacity to try impeachment cases, all member of the Senate must be placed under oath or affirmation to perform their duty honestly and with due diligence.
42. If impeachment charges should be lodged against the President of the United Sates, the chief Justice shall preside over the senate during the impeachment hearing.
43. No members of the Judiciary or the executive branch of government shall be convicted of impeachment charges unless there is a concurrence by two-thirds of the members of the Senate in attendance.
44. If any judge or executive officer is convicted of impeachment charges, the punishment of the Senate shall not extend beyond his removal from office and declaring that individual disqualified from holding any office of honor, trust, or profit under the authority of the United States in the future.
45. A person removed from office by impeachment proceedings may still be charged, tried, and punished for any civil or criminal violation of the law which led to his impeachment.
THE ORGANIZATION OF CONGRESS
46. It will be up to the legislature of each state to determine the time, places, and manner in which elections shall be held for federal offices, but the Congress may at any time pass a law to alter such arrangements. An exception was made as to the places of choosing Senators, since they were originally chosen by the state legislatures.
47. The Congress, consisting of both the House and the Senate, shall meet automatically once every year
48. The Senate and the House of Representatives shall each judge and determine whether or not its members have been properly elected to represent their respective constituencies.
49. Each House shall be the sole judge of whether or not an elected Senator or Representative has required qualifications.
50. A majority of the Senate and a majority of the House of Representatives shall be required in order to constitute a quorum to do the business of these houses.
51. When no quorum is present in either of the houses of Congress, the minority may meet for the purpose of calling up absent members and compelling them, where necessary, to suffer certain penalties until such time as a quorum is in attendance. The smaller group can also adjourn day to day until a quorum is attained.
52. The House and the Senate shall each determine the rules and proceedings by which it will carry out its responsibilities.
53. The House and the Senate shall each have the authority to punish its own members for disorderly behavior.
54. The House and the Senate shall each have the authority to expel a member for improper behavior by a two-thirds vote.
55. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings.
56. The Journal of each house shall be published from time to time.
57. Any matter may be excluded from the journal which, in the judgment of that house, is sufficiently sensitive that it should be kept secret.
58. Decisions on any question before each house will be settled on the basis of the number of “yeas” and “nays” of its members.
59. If one-fifth of those present desire to have a recorded vote of each member on a particular issue, the presiding officer will ask for a role call and the vote of each member will be shown in the journal.
60. Because the Constitution required the participation of both houses to transact business, neither house can adjourn for more than three days without the consent of the other.
61. Neither house shall, without the consent of the other, vote to meet at a different place.
62. The compensation of Senators and Representatives shall be fixed by law and paid out of the treasury of the United States.
63. Except for treason, a felony, or a breach of the peace, Senators and member of the House of Representatives shall be immune from arrest when their respective houses are in session or when they are going to or returning form a session.
64. In order to insure complete freedom of speech by member of the House or the Senate, they shall not be questioned at any other place for what they may have said in a speech or debate while on the floor in a committee hearing.
65. No Senator or member of the House of Representatives may accept, during his or her term of office a civil office or position in the United States government which was created or which had its salary, benefits, or other emolument increased during the time the appointee was serving in Congress.
66. No person employed in the United Sates government may at the same time serve as a Senator or member of the House of Representatives.
THE LEGISLATIVE PROCESS
67. All bills for the raising of revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives.
68. However, the Senate may propose or concur with amendment on revenue bills as with other legislation.
69. Every bill passed by the House and the Senate shall be presented to the President for his review.
70. If the President approves the bill he shall sign it and it then becomes law at the time indicated in the bill.
71. If the President does not approve of a bill, he shall return it, with is objections, to that house from which it originated, and the objections of the President shall be entered in the journal of that house.
72. After due consideration of the President’s objections, both houses may vote on the bill again. If two –thirds of both the House and the Senate approve the bill, then it shall become law without the President’s signature. However, the name and vote of each Senator and Representatives shall be entered in the journals of their respective houses.
73. If a bill has been presented to the President and he does not sign it or return it to Congress for reconsideration within ten days, then it shall automatically become a law.
74. If the Congress presents a bill to the President and then adjourns before he has had ten days to review it, the bill shall not become law unless he sings it.
75. Every order, resolution, or vote requiring the concurrence of the Senate and the House of Representatives (except on a question of adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States and be approved by him before it takes effect.
THE POWERS GRATED TO CONGRESS
(From article 1, section 8, clause 1-2)
76. The people of the state hereby delegate to the federal Congress the power to collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises.
77. The people of the states empower the Congress to use the money collected through taxes to pay its debts.
78. The people of the states empower the Congress to spend taxes for the common defense.
79. The people of the states empower the Congress to expend money (for the enumerated purposes listed in Article 1 section 8), provided it is done in a way that benefits the general welfare of the whole people.
80. The people of the states stipulate that “all duties imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States.
81. The people of the states hereby empower the Congress to borrow on the credit of the United States.
COMMERCE, NATURALIZATION, AND BANKRUPTCY
(From Article 1, Section 8 Clause 3-4)
82. The people for the sates empower the Congress to regulate commerce with foreign nations.
83. The people of the sates empower the Congress to regulate commerce between the states.
84. The people of the states empower the Congress to regulate commerce with the Indian tribes.
85. The people of the states empower the Congress to establish a uniform system of rules and regulations for the naturalization of those desiring to become citizens of the United States.
86. The people of the states empower the Congress to establish uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcy throughout the United States.
MONEY, POST OFFICES, AND COPYRIGHTS AND PATENTS
(From Article 1, Section 8, Clause 5-10)
87. The people of the states empower the Congress to coin money and regulate the value thereof and also of foreign coins.
88. The people of the states empower the Congress fix the standard of weights and measures.
89. The people of the states empower the congress to provide for the punishment of counterfeiting of United States securities and current coin.
90. The people of the states empower the Congress to establish post office and designate those roads which are to be used for postal services.
91. The people of the states empower the Congress to encourage the progress of science and the useful arts by issuing copyrights and patents to authors and inventors to grant them an exclusive right for a limited time to publish their writings or exploit their inventive discoveries.
92. The people of the states empower the Congress to set up federal courts of justice inferior to the Supreme Court.
93. The people of the states empower the Congress to define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas.
94. The people of the states empower the Congress to define and punish offenses against the law of nations.
THE WAR POWERS AND THE REMAINING ENUMERATED POWERS
(From Article 1, Section 8, Clause 11-18)
95. The people of the states empower the Congress to declare war.
96. The people of the states empower the Congress to grant letters of marque and reprisal.
97. The people of the states empower the congress to make rules concerning that which may be captured on land or on water.
98. The people of the states empower the Congress to raise money in support of tis armies, but appropriations for that purpose shall not extend beyond two years.
99. The people of the states empower the Congress to provide and maintain a navy.
100. The people of the states empower the Congress to make rules and regulations for the governing of the land and naval forces.
101. The people of the states empower the Congress to call forth the state militia when needed to: (1) execute federal laws, (2) suppress insurrections in the states, or (3) repel invasions from abroad.
102. The people of the states empower the Congress to provide for the organizing, arming, and training (disciplining) of the state militia and shall have authority to govern (direct and control) any of the state militia which are called into the service of the United States.
103. The people reserve to the states the power to appoint the officers of their state militia and carry out the training and discipline in each of the states as prescribed by Congress.
104. The people of the states empower the Congress to have exclusive jurisdiction and lawmaking power over a designated district (not to exceed ten miles square) which shall be the seat of government for the United States.
105. The people of the states empower Congress to exercise complete jurisdiction and authority over all lands or facilities purchased within a state, providing it shall be with the consent of the legislature of that state. Such lands shall be used for the “erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock yards, and other needful buildings.”
106. The people of the states empower the Congress to pass any laws which shall be “necessary and proper” to carry out the enumerated powers designated above, or to carry out any other powers vested by this Constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department or offices thereof.
107. Until A.D. 1808 there shall be no prohibition or interference against the migration or importation of any persons which the “states no existing” shall consider proper for admission.
108. The Congress is empowered to impose a tax on any such persons but it shall not exceed $10 per person.
109. The right of demanding a writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended unless there is a rebellion or an invasion and the public safety requires it.
110. The Congress shall pass no bill of attainder (declaring a person to be a criminal without a trial and conviction).
111. The Congress shall pass no ex post facto law.
112. No capitation tax (a fixed tax of so much per person regardless of circumstances) or other direct tax shall be assessed against the states except in proportion to their population.
113. No direct tax shall be assessed against the states except in proportion to their population.
114. The Congress shall not place a tax or duty on any articles or products exported from any state.
115. No regulation of commerce or revenue shall give preference to the ports of one state over those of another.
116. No vessel going from one state to another shall be obliged to enter into any other port for the purpose of clearing passage or paying duties to a state.
117. No money shall be withdrawn from the Treasury unless it has been specifically authorized by a lawful appropriation.
118. Accounts of all receipts and expenditures of public money shall be maintained and published from time to time.
119. No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States.
120. No person holding any office of either profit or trust for the United States shall accept any present, office, or title form a foreign country or a foreign potentate unless it is specifically authorized by Congress.
RESTRAINTS ON THE STATES
121. No state shall be allowed to enter any treaty, alliance, or confederation.
122. No state shall be allowed to grant letters of marque and reprisal.
123. No state shall coin money, or emit bills of credit.
124. No state shall make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts.
125. No state shall pass a bill of attainder.
126. No state shall pass any ex post facto law.
127. No state shall pass any law impairing the obligations of existing contracts.
128. No state shall grant any title of nobility.
129. Without the consent of Congress, no state shall lay any duties on imports or exports.
130. Any state setting up laws which lay imposts or duties on imports or exports to cover the costs of inspections shall be subject to revision and control by the Congress, and any funds in excess of actual costs shall be turned over to the U.S. Treasury.
131. Without the consent of congress, no state shall lay any duty on a ship’s tonnage.
132. Without the consent of Congress, no state shall keep troops or ships of war in time of peace.
133. Without the consent of Congress, no state shall enter into any agreement or compact with another state or with a foreign power.
134. Without the consent of Congress, no state shall engage in war unless actually invaded or in such imminent danger that action must be taken before the consent of Congress can be obtained.
ARTICLE 2– THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH
THE MOST POWERFUL POLITICAL OFFICE IN THE WORLD
135. The executive power to administer the affairs of the United States shall be vested in a single individual the President of the United States.
136. The President shall hold office during a term of four years.
137. A Vice President shall be chosen for the same term as the President.
138. The President and the Vice President shall be chosen by the electors from each state. Each state will be entitled to the same number of electors as the sum total of its Representatives and Senators.
139. No person who is a Senator or Representative, or who occupies an office of trust or profit in the United States government, shall be eligible to serve as an elector.
140. The Congress shall designate the time when the electors shall meet and cast their votes for President and Vice President. This shall be the same day in all of the states.
141. To be candidate for President of the United States, a person must be a natural-born citizen, or a citizen at the time of the adoption of the Constitution.
142. A candidate for President must be at least thirty-five years of age at the time he is sworn in as President.
143. A candidate for President must have been a resident of the United States for at least fourteen years.
144. In case the office of President is vacated for any reason, the same shall “devolve upon the Vice President.”
145. The Congress may, by law, provide for the situation when the offices of both President and Vice President are vacated and may indicate the persons to serve in these capacities until the disability is removed or a new election held.
146. The President shall be compensated for his services and paid stated times, but his compensation shall be neither increased no diminished during the time he is in office.
147. While serving as president of the United States, he shall not receive any additional emolument form the Unite States government or from any individual state government.
THE POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE PRESIDENT
148. Before he can assume the duties of his office, the President must take the following oath: “I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United Sates, and will, to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the united Sates.”
149. The President shall be commander in chief of the army and navy of the United States and of the militia of the several state when they are called into active service by the federal government.
150. The president may require the opinion, in writing, of the principal officers who superintendent the various bureau and agencies, or other services of the executive department. Such officers shall be required to report to the President any pertinent information he may desire concerning those duties and responsibilities assigned to any office.
151. The people of the states empower the President to grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against the United States.
152. The President shall not have power to grant reprieve or pardon in the case of impeachment proceedings brought against a judge or officer of the executive branch.
153. The President shall have power, by any with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided that two-thirds of the Senators who are present concur with provision thereof.
154. The President shall nominate and, with the advice and consent of the Senate, appoint ambassadors, public ministers, consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the United States not otherwise provided for in this Constitution.
155. The Congress may, by law, delegate to the President, the various courts, or the heads of departments authority to appoint inferior officers.
156. The President shall have power to fill vacancies which occur while the Senate is in recess, but such commissions shall expire at the end of the next session if the appointment has not been confirmed by the Senate.
157. The President shall, from time to time, give the Congress a report on the state of the union.
158. The President shall recommend to the Congress such measures as he shall consider necessary and expedient to improve the general welfare of the nation.
159. On extraordinary occasions, the President may call together both the House of Representatives and the Senate in a special session.
160. Should the House and the Senate disagree as to the date of their adjournment, the President may designate the time when their adjournment shall take place.
161. The President shall receive ambassadors and other public ministers from foreign nations.
162. The President shall see that the federal laws are faithfully administered and executed.
163. The President shall commission all officer of the United States.
164. The President, Vice President, and all civil officer of the United States shall be subject to removal from office on impeachment for, and on conviction of, treason bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.
ARTICLE 3—THE JUDICIAL BRANCH
THE MOST POWERFUL JUDICIARY IN THE WORLD
JURISDICTION OF THE FEDERAL COURTS
165. The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one Supreme Court and such inferior courts as the Congress may from time to time establish.
166. The judges of both the Supreme Court and the inferior courts shall hold their office during good behavior.
167. The Judges, both of the Supreme Court and of the inferior courts, shall receive a designated compensation which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office.
168. The administration of this judicial power shall extend to all cases, both in law and in equity.
169. The federal courts shall have jurisdiction over any question concerning the Constitution of the United States.
170. The federal courts shall have jurisdiction over any question arising under the laws of the United States.
171. The Federal courts shall have jurisdiction over any question arising under the treaties or agreements made by authorities or officers of the United States.
172. The jurisdiction of the federal courts shall extend to all cases affecting ambassadors, public ministries, or consuls of foreign nations.
173. The jurisdiction of the federal courts shall cover all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction.
174. The Jurisdiction of the federal courts shall apply to all cases in which the United States shall be a party.
175. The jurisdiction of the federal courts shall apply to any controversies between two or more states.
176. The jurisdiction of the federal courts shall apply to controversies arising between a state and the citizens of another state. (This provision was repealed by the Eleventh Amendment)
177. The jurisdiction of the federal courts shall apply to controversies between citizens of different states.
178. The jurisdiction of the federal courts shall apply to citizens of the same state over controversies involving lands or grants in different states.
179. The federal courts shall have jurisdiction over controversies between a state or the citizens thereof and any foreign state or the subjects thereof.
180. IN all cases affecting ambassadors, public minsters, and consuls the Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction.
181. IN all cases in which a state shall be a party, the Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction.
APPELLATE POWERS, THE COMMON LAW JURY, AND TREASON
182. The Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction in all cases arising under the Constitution or the federal laws and treaties, as to both law and fact, with such exceptions and under such regulations as the Congress shall make.
183. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury.
184. Such trials shall be held in the state where the alleged crime was committed.
185. When a crime is committed outside of any state, the Congress shall indicate the place where the trial shall be held.
186. Treason against the United States shall consist of levying war against hem or adhering to their enemies by giving them aid and comfort.
187. No person shall be convicted of treason unless there is testimony from two witnesses to the same overt criminal act of the accused makes confessions in open court.
188. The Congress shall have power to declare what the punishment for treason shall be.
189. In treason cases there can be no “attainder of treason,” whereby the penalty shall extend to the forfeiture of property, or any other penalty beyond the life of the accused.
ARTICLES 4 – 7
190. Full faith and credit shall be given by each state to the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other state.
191. The Congress shall prescribe the manner in which the official proceedings of each state shall be proved so as to be acceptable and effective in all of the other states.
192. The citizens of each state shall be entitled to all of the privileges immunities of the citizens of the several states.
193. Any fugitive from justice who is found in another state shall, upon demand of the governor of the state where the offense occurred, be delivered over to the authorities having jurisdiction over the case.
194. Since a governor is responsible for the safety and well-being of all persons residing within his state, he is not required to extradite a fugitive from justice to another state unless he feels assured that he will receive fair and humane treatment.
195. No person under obligation to perform personal services in one state shall be discharged of such obligation by fleeing to another state where the requirement of such services is unlawful. The person owing such service shall be delivered up to the person having claim on the same.
196. New States formulated from newly populated territories shall be admitted when they
Have met the requirements prescribed by law.
197. Congress cannot create a new state within the territory of an existing state without the consent of the legislature of that state.
198. New states may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new state shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other state; nor shall any state be formed by the junction of two or more states, or parts of states, without the consent of the legislatures of the state concerned, as well as of the Congress.
199. The Congress shall have the power to make all needful rules and regulations concerning the management of the property or territory belonging to the United States.
200. The Congress shall have power to determine disposition of any territory or property belonging to the United States.
201. Nothing in this Constitution is in the construed as prejudicing any claims of the United State or of any of the individual states.
202. The United States guarantee to preserve a republican (freely elected representative) form of government in each of the states.
203. The United States guarantees every state federal protection from invasion of its sovereign territory.
204. Any state may call upon the United States government at any time to protect it against domestic violence.
205. This Constitution can be amended by approval of two-third of the House and Senate and three-fourths of the state legislatures or state conventions.
206. Should the people of the States desire an amendment which the Congress will not pass, a constitutional convention shall be convened upon the request of two-thirds of the state legislatures, and if three-fourths of the state legislatures or state conventions afterwards ratify any recommended change, they shall become part of the Constitution.
207. No amendment to the Constitution can alter the reservation set forth in Article 1 section 9, clause 4, which states that there will be no restriction on the importation of slaves before 1808.
THE FINISHING TOUCHES
208. No amendment to the Constitution can deprive the states of equal representation and equal voting rights in the Senate.
209. All debts contracted and engagement entered into before the adoption of this Constitution shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution as under the Articles of Confederation.
210. The supreme law of the land shall consist of the Constitution, the law passed by Congress, and the treaties which have been or shall be passed by Congress.
211. The judges in every state shall be bound to enforce the supreme law of the land, anything in their state constitutions or their state laws to the contrary notwithstanding.
212. All elected representatives and all officers and administrators of both the United States and the United States and the individual states shall take an oath or affirmation that they shall support this Constitution.
213. No religious test shall ever be required as a qualification for any office or public trust in the United States.
214. The ratification of this Constitution by nine states will put it into full force and effect.
AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION
THE BILL OF RIGHTS
(From the First Amendment, Principle 215-218)
215. Congress shall make NO law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof.
216. The Congress shall make NO laws abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press.
217. Congress shall make NO law abridging the right of the people to peaceably assemble.
218. The Congress shall make NO law abridging the right of the people to petition the government for a redress of grievances.
AMENDMENTS TWO THROUGH TWELVE
(From the Second Amendment, Principle 219)
219. Because a well-regulated state militia is necessary for the security of a free people, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed by the federal government.
(From the Third Amendment, Principle 220)
220. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war except in a manner prescribed by law.
(From the Fourth Amendment, Principle 221-223)
221. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects shall not be violated.
222. The right of the people to be protected against unreasonable searches and seizures shall not be violated.
223. No warrant shall be issued by the courts unless it is based on probable cause, supported by an oath or affirmation, and describes the particularity of the place to be searched and the persons or things to be seized.
(From the Fifth Amendment, Principle 224-229)
224. No person shall be required to answer to a capital or infamous crime unless the charges have been formally stated in a presentment or an indictment by a grand jury.
225. The only exception to the grand jury hearing shall be in the case of a military court-martial where the accused is a member of the armed services and the crime is a military offense during a time of war or great public danger.
226. No person shall be subject to double jeopardy for the same offense.
227. No person shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself.
228. No person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law.
229. No private property shall be taken for public use without just compensation.
(From the Sixth Amendment Principle 230-235)
230. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial.
231. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to have a trial before an impartial jury in the state and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law.
232. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall be informed of the nature of the crime with which he or she is charged.
233. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to be confronted by the witnesses against him and ask questions of the same.
234. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to have compulsory process to obtain witnesses I his favor.
235. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall have the right to counsel to assist him in his defense.
(From the Seventh Amendment Principle 236-237)
236. In suits of common law. Where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved.
237. No fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of the United States, except as provided by the rules of common law.
(From the Eighth Amendment Principle 238-240)
238. In criminal cases, excessive bail shall not be required.
239. In criminal cases, excessive fines shall not be imposed.
240. In criminal cases, cruel and unusual punishment shall not be inflicted.
(From the Ninth Amendment, Principle 241)
241. The enumeration of certain right in this Constitution shall not be interpreted to repudiate, deny, or disparage other rights belonging to the people, but which have not been enumerated.
(From the Tenth Amendment, Principle 242)
242. All powers not specifically delegated to the Congress of the United State by this Constitution, nor prohibited to the states by this Constitution, are reserved to the states or to the people.
(From the Eleventh Amendment, Principle 243)
243. The judicial power of the United States shall not extend to cases either in law or in equity which are brought against one of the states by citizens of another state or by the subjects of any foreign power.
(From the Twelfth Amendment, Principle 244-248)
244. Electors voting for the President and the Vice President shall meet in their respective states and shall vote on one ballot for President, and on a separate ballot for Vice President; they shall then send a signed, certified list of the outcome of the balloting to the president of the Senate.
245. The president of the Senate shall open the reports of form the elector for the various states and tally the total for President and the total for Vice President.
246. If no person obtains a majority, then the names (not to exceed three) of those having the highest vote shall be submitted to the House of Representatives, and the House of Representatives shall immediately choose, by ballot, the President, with the delegation from each state casting one vote. To fulfill this assignment, two-thirds of all the states must be represented with one or more persons in attendance.
247. If no person running for Vice President has received a majority of the votes, then the two receiving the highest number of votes shall be submitted to the Senate, which shall then choose the Vice President. A quorum for the purpose of choosing a Vice President shall be at least two-thirds of the whole number of Senators. A majority of those in attendance will constitute a sufficient number to elect the Vice President.
248. No person shall be eligible for Vice President of the United States who does not have all of the constitutional qualifications required for the office of President.
AMENDMENTS THIRTEEN THROUGH SIXTEEN
(From the Thirteenth Amendment, Principle 249-251)
249. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall exist within the United States or any place subject to it jurisdiction.
250. The only exception to the prohibition against involuntary servitude shall be in the case of a convicted criminal who shall be sentenced to involuntary servitude as part of his punishment.
(From the Fourteenth Amendment, Principle 252-263)
251. Congress shall have the power to enforce these provisions by appropriate legislation.
252. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are hereby declared to be citizens of the United States and also of the state wherein they reside.
253. No state shall pass any law which abridges the privileges or immunities belonging to all citizens of the United States.
254. No state shall deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law.
255. No state shall deny any person who lives within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
256. Representatives in the Congress shall hereafter be apportioned according to the actual number of persons in each state.
257. IN calculating the total population for the purpose of apportioning representation, the census shall not include Indians unless they are paying taxes.
258. If the right to vote in any state or federal elections is denied to any male inhabitants who are qualified to vote, the basics of representation for that state shall be reduced by the percentage of citizens so deprived of this privilege compared with the total number of qualified voters.
259. No person shall be allowed to serve in either a federal or a state office who has previously occupied a federal or state office and taken an oath to uphold the Constitution of the United States, but has thereafter participated in a rebellion against the United States or given aid and comfort to its enemies. The Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of each house, remove such disability.
260. Debts of the United States which were incurred while suppressing insurrections and rebellions shall not be questioned, nor shall pensions and bounties for services rendered in connection therewith.
261. Neither the United States nor any individual state shall pay any debt or obligation which was incurred in aiding the rebellion against the United States, since all such debts, obligations, and claims shall be considered illegal and void.
262. No claim shall be acknowledged by the United States nor by any of the individual states for losses resulting from the emancipation of slaves or for issues suffered from trying to prevent the emancipation of the slaves.
263. The Congress of the United States shall have power to enforce the provisions of this amendment with appropriate legislation.
(From the Fifteenth Amendment, Principle 264)
264. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any individual state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
(From the Sixteenth Amendment, Principle 265)
265. The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on income from any source whatever, and such taxes shall no longer be required to be apportioned among the several states according to population.
AMENDMENTS SEVENTEEN THROUGH TWENTY-SEVEN
(From the Seventeenth Amendment, Principle 266-267)
266. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each state, elected to a six-year term by the people thereof; and each Senator shall have one vote.
267. When a Senate seat becomes vacant for any reason, the governor of that state shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancy; however, the legislature of any state may empower the governor to make a temporary appointment until the people fill the vacancy by an election as the legislature shall direct.
(From the Eighteenth Amendment, Principle 268)
268. The manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors for beverage purposes I hereby prohibited. The Congress and the several states shall have concurrent jurisdiction to enforce this amendment, which must be ratified in seven years to be valid.
(From the Nineteenth Amendment, Principle 269)
269. The right of citizens of the United State to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States, or any individual state, on account of sex.
(From the Twentieth Amendment, Principle 270-275)
270. The terms of United States Senators and member of the House of Representatives shall terminate at noon on the third day of January of the year in which their terms were scheduled to expire. The terms of their successors shall then begin.
271. The terms of the President and vice President of the United States shall end at noon on the twentieth day of January of the year when their terms of office are scheduled to expire. The terms of their successors shall then begin.
272. The Congress shall automatically assemble at least once each year. The first session shall commence at noon on the third day of January unless a law I passed appointing a different day.
273. If the President- elect shall die before taking office the vice President-elect shall automatically become President. If a President shall not have been chosen by the time designated for the beginning of his term, or if the President-elect is unable to qualify for his office, the Vice President-elect shall act as President until the President-elect is qualified.
274. The Congress may provide, by law, for a situation wherein neither the President-elect nor the Vice President-elect shall have qualified to serve. The Congress shall decide how the temporary appointee shall be selected, and after his selection he shall act as a President until a President- or Vice President – elect shall have qualified.
275. If no candidate for President or Vice President has received a majority of electoral votes, and the matter has been referred to the appropriate house but one of the candidates being considered shall die, Congress may, by law, determine how the House shall proceed in the selection of the President, or how the Senate, shall proceed in the selection of a Vice President.
(From the Twenty-first Amendment, Principle 276)
276. The Eighteenth Amendment, prohibiting the manufacture, sale, transportation, or importation of intoxicating liquors, is hereby repealed. Nevertheless, the transportation or importation of intoxicating liquors into any state in violation of the laws of that state is prohibited.
(From the Twenty-second Amendment, Principle 277-278)
277. No person shall be elected to the office of President of the United States more than twice.
278. If a Vice President or any other person has acted as President of the United States for more than two years (in order to fill out the term of an elected President whom he replaced), that person can be elected to the office of President only one time. However, this amendment shall not affect the term of the person serving as President at the time this amendment becomes effective.
(From the Twenty-third Amendment, Principle 279)
279. So that the people living in the District of Columbia, which is the seat of government, shall have the opportunity to vote for the President and Vice President at regular elections, the Congress shall provide for the appointment of electors numbering no more than the electors of the least populous state of the union, and the vote on these electors shall be counted as though the District of Columbia were a state.
(From the Twenty-fourth Amendment, Principle 280)
280. No person can be prohibited from voting in a federal election by either the United States or any state because that person shall have failed to pay a poll tax or any other tax.
(From the Twenty-fifth Amendment, Principle 281-285)
281. Whenever a President dies, resigns, or is removed from office, the Vice President shall become President. If the office of Vice President becomes vacant, the President shall, with the approval of a majority of the House and the Senate, appoint a Vice President.
282. If the President advises the Speaker of the House and the president pro tempore of the Senate that he is unable to discharge the duties of his office, the Vice President shall become acting President until such time as the President advises theses same officials of the House and the Senate that he is able to resume his duties.
283. If the Vice President and a majority of the Cabinet (or special commission set up by the Congress) shall decide that the President is unable to discharge the duties of his office, they shall give their opinion in writing to the Speaker of the House and the president pro tempore of the Senate. Thereafter the Vice President shall immediately take over the duties of acting President of the United States.
284. If the President feels he is still able to perform his duties, he shall advise the Speaker of the House and the President pro tempore of the Senate, but he may not resume his duties if the Vice President and a majority of the Cabinet still believe he is incapable of doing so and advise the same officials of the fact.
285. If there is a dispute between the President and his Vice president as to the President’s ability to resume his office, it will be up to Congress to decide this issue. If the Congress is not in session, it must be recalled within forty-eight hours. The Congress will then have twenty-one days to reach a conclusion. Meanwhile, the Vice President shall continue to occupy the position of acting President. After an appropriate investigation, the Congress will then cast its vote and the President shall resume his office unless two-thirds of both houses vote against him.
(From the Twenty-sixth Amendment, Principle 286)
286. The voting rights of any citizen of the United States who is eighteen years or older shall not denied or abridged by the United States or any state on account of age.
(From the Twenty-seventh Amendment, Principle 287)
287. If a law is passed which changes the compensation of Senators or Representatives, it shall not go into effect until after a regular election of Representatives.